Cultural Comparison of ODL with Conventional Education in Pakistan

Main Article Content



Culture is considered to be a significant factor behind a sustainable competitive advantage, leading towards organizational growth. According to previous studies strong relationship exists between organizational culture and its performance and success. Therefore, in order to enhance the performance of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode, specific culture should be identified. Specific organizational culture can be defined by the nature of tasks performed and the procedures adopted by the organization. Routine operations demonstrate the deeply rooted values of a particular culture. Some studies reveal the resemblance in cultures of different organizations. Specifically, organizations operating within the same industry experience more cultural similarity. Considering theses attributes of organizational culture, this study will explore the particular culture of ODL mode of education, defined by the organizational activities and procedures by interviewing individuals associated with ODL. Moreover, this study will identify the similarities existing between the conventional and ODL education systems, as they are operating within the same industry i-e Education. The consequences of this study will assist in enhancing the capacity building of its employees by promoting the appropriate culture. This alignment between the organizational culture and objectives will ultimately enhance the human productivity.

Article Details

How to Cite
CHOUDHARY, S. (2013). Cultural Comparison of ODL with Conventional Education in Pakistan. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 11(2), 4-24. Retrieved from


Barnouw, V. (1979). Culture and personality: Dorsey press Homewood, Ill. Bertaux, D. (1981). From the life-history approach to the transformation of sociological practice. Biography and society: The life history approach in the social sciences, 29-45. Britten, N. (1995). Qualitative interviews in medical research. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 311(6999), 251. Retrieved July 15, 2013, from icles/PMC2550292/pdf/bmj006020049.pdf Cameron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (2011). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture: Based on the competing values framework: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved July 13, 2013, from rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=w eb&cd=5&cad=rja&ved=0CEwQFjA E& m%2Fkq%2Fgroups%2F30802428% 2F149246219%2Fname%2FDiagnosi ng&ei=axGLUomLrOv7AaigIGgBA&usg=AFQjCN EBcra6joJND_G4FQvcM_kTw1HO yw&bvm=bv.56643336,d.bGE Chatman, J. A., & Jehn, K. A. (1994). Assessing the relationship between industry characteristics and organizational culture: how different can you be? Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 522-553. Retrieved July 17, 2013, from /256699?uid=3738832&uid=2&uid=4 &sid=21103006041183 Choudhary, S. (2013). A STUDY OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE OF SMEs: CULTURAL TRANSFERENCE FROM EMPLOYMENT TO SELF-EMPLOYMENT. (MS-ESME), Governmnet College unviresity (GCU), Lahore. Deal, T. E., & Kennedy, A. A. (1983). Culture: A new look through old lenses. The journal of applied behavioral science, 19(4), 498-505. Retrieved July 17, 2013, from Erickson, F. (2009). Transformation and School Success: The Politics and Culture of Educational Achievement. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 18(4), 335–356. Fullan, M. (1996). Professional Culture and Educational Change. School Psychology Review, 25(4), 496-500. Hallinger, P., & Leithwood, K. (1996). Culture and educational administration: A case of finding out what you don’t know you don’t know. Journal of Educational Administration, 34(5), 98-116. Handy, C. (1993). Understanding Organizations: Penguin Books. Hills, M. D. (2002). Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's values orientation theory. Online readings in psychology and culture, 4(4), 3. Retrieved July 17, 2013, from content.cgi?article=1040&context=or pc&seiredir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fsc %3D%2529.%2BKluckhohn%2Band %2BStrodtbeck%2527s%2Bvalues%2 Borientation%2Btheory.%26btnG%3 D%26hl%3Den%26as_sdt%3D0%25 2C5%26as_vis%3D1#search=%22%2 9.%20Kluckhohn%20Strodtbecks%20 values%20orientation%20theory.%22

Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. The Academy of Management Executive, 7(1), 81-94. Retrieved July 19, 2013, from g/401/readings/Cultural%20constraints %20in%20mgmt%20theories%20Hofs tede.pdf Holbeche, L. (2006). Understanding Change: Theory, Implementation And Success: Butterworth-Heinemann. Johnson, G. (1992). Managing strategic change—strategy, culture and action. Long Range Planning, 25(1), 28-36. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=w eb&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CCwQFjA A& m%2Fkq%2Fgroups%2F16391530% 2F1840894878%2Fname%2Fjohnson .pdf&ei=6hWLUqeSFMGUhQfgwIG 4Cg&usg=AFQjCNHM1qiMjdWEe QA0QPH8U5xtAlks6w&bvm=bv.56 643336,d.bGE Kuzel, A. J. (1992). Sampling in qualitative inquiry Doing Qualitative Research (pp. 424): SAGE Publications, Inc. Martin, H. J. (1985). Managing specialized corporate cultures. Gaining control of the corporate culture, 148-162. Nahavandi, A., & Malekzadeh, A. R. (1999). Organizational behavior: the personorganization fit: Prentice Hall. O'Reilly, C. A., Chatman, J., & Caldwell, D. F. (1991). People and Organizational culture: A profile comparison approach to assessing personorganization fit. The Acadmey of Management Journal, 34(3), 487-516. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from ll Rousseau, D. (1990). Quantitative assessment of organizational culture: The case for multiple measures. Frontiers in industrial and organizational psychology, 3, 153-192.